By Klaus Bartschat, K. Bartschat, I.E. McCarthy, R.P. McEachran, D.H Madison, Z. Xixiang
Computational Atomic Physics offers with computational tools for calculating electron (and positron) scattering from atoms and ions, together with elastic scattering, excitation, and ionization procedures. every one bankruptcy is split into summary, conception, computing device application with pattern enter and output, precis, instructed difficulties, and references. An MS-DOS diskette is integrated, which holds eleven courses overlaying the beneficial properties of every bankruptcy and accordingly contributing to a deeper realizing of the sector. therefore the e-book presents a special useful software of complex quantum mechanics.
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Extra resources for Computational Atomic Physics. Electron and Positron Collisions with Atoms and Ions
Ramp filters are discussed in more detail in Fig. 21. The ramp-filtered projections are characterized by enhancement of edge information and the introduction of negative values (or lobes) into the filtered projections. During the backprojection process, these negative values cancel portions of the other angular contributions and, in effect, help to eliminate the star artifact and the blurring seen in the unfiltered backprojection. However, enough projections must be acquired to ensure that proper cancelation is obtained.
B) This figure shows two large field-of-view rectangular cameras mounted opposite each other, 180° apart. This configuration may speed 360° SPECT imaging by halving the imaging time while collecting the same number of counts, because a full 360° of projections can be acquired by rotating the gantry 180°. (c) For cardiac SPECT, in which a 180° orbit is recommended, SPECT systems with two detectors mounted next to each other (at 90°) on the gantry allow a full 180° orbit to be acquired while only rotating the gantry through 90°.
Hybrid systems, which physically couple a CT scanner with a PET (a) or a SPECT (b) scanner, are now in routine clinical use. The coupled CT scanner, ranging from 1 to 64 slices, is commonly used for attenuation correction and, if supported by the CT CT SPECT scanner, can be used to evaluate coronary calcium and/or perform CT angiographic studies. An advantage of these systems is that, in one imaging study, they can provide comprehensive cardiac evaluation of anatomic information from the CT scan and physiologic information from the PET or SPECT scans .