By John Shore
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Additional resources for Colorants and Auxiliaries: Organic Chemistry and Application Properties: Colorants v. 1
Monoazo dyes are supreme in all hue sectors of the azo acid range except the unmetallised browns and blacks, where disazo structures are more numerous. Anthraquinone and triarylmethane acid dyes traditionally provided most of the brilliant violet to green members of this range but demand for them declined, especially the triarylmethane types, as bright azo alternatives were developed. The significance of nitro yellows and browns, xanthene reds and violets and the phthalocyanine blues has always been marginal in the acid dye range.
The dioxazine and phthalocyanine chromogens are represented in bright blue direct dyes of high light fastness. 4 Percentage distribution of chemical classes in direct dye hue sectors Distribution in hue sector (%) Chemical class Yellow Orange Red Violet Blue Green Brown Black Monoazo Disazo Polyazo Copper-complex azo Stilbene Thiazole Dioxazine Phthalocyanine 4 58 8 7 53 16 17 13 23 1 8 21 64 4 1 23 68 8 1 14 71 10 3 2 4 83 3 9 1 52 31 12 3 2 3 22 67 1 7 2 % of all direct dyes 5 49 33 5 5 1 1 1 As there is no chemical change of direct dyes during orthodox application, their exhaust dyebaths are eminently suitable for recycling.
In this way, exposure levels can be kept below the threshold of unacceptable risk. It is reasonable to accept that for practical purposes levels of exposure exist below which the risk becomes trivial . The various measures to reduce risk are an integral part of risk management. A state of ‘zero risk’ cannot be reached, but efforts to maintain exposure levels below the threshold of unacceptability must be unremitting, in order to increase the margin of safety. An essential prerequisite for effective risk control is the provision of readily accessible hazard information on computer disc, in safety data sheets and on warning labels.