By Jim M Waller, M Bigger, Rory J Hillocks
Cost cave in and oversupply have made espresso a high-profile crop lately: by no means has effective construction and crop security been extra very important for decreasing expenditures and lengthening caliber. choked with illustrations, this ebook covers the origins, botany, agroecology and all over the world creation records of espresso, and the insect pests, plant pathogens, nematodes and nutrient deficiencies that afflict it. With emphasis on built-in crop administration, this e-book experiences regulate measures compatible for any espresso pest or ailment and should permit agriculturists to layout and enforce sustainable pest administration systems.
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Additional resources for Coffee pests, diseases and their management
1. Life cycle of Monochamus leuconotus. Natural enemies Both in Tanzania and South Africa, the eggs are parasitized by an undetermined species of Aprostocetus. Up to 12 individuals of this Braconid wasp may develop within a single egg but, as the parasites are not common, they have little effect. Larval mortality is high, Tapley (1960) having recorded 45% losses in Tanzania, much of which must be due to parasites and predators. Several parasitic wasps have been recorded (see Appendix A) but, due to difﬁculties in rearing, many have not been identiﬁed to species or even to genus.
CRF (1978) An Atlas of Coffee Pests and Diseases. Coffee Board of Kenya, Nairobi, Kenya, 150 pp. S. (1975) Agricultural Insect Pests of the Tropics and their Control. Cambridge University Press, London, 516 pp. E. (2005) Plant Protection in Coffee. Recommendations for the Common Code for the Coffee Community Initiative. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit, GmbH. 65 pp. E. (1950–1951) De Plagen van de Cultuurgewassen in Indonesië. Van Hoeve, Gravenhage, Netherlands/Bandoeng, Indonesia, 1065 pp.
Around 5% of the crop is arabica, but most of the exported crop is dry-processed robusta. 4 ha in size, although many of these are mixed holdings producing coffee, along with other perennial crops, in polycultures. India Coffee in India is produced mainly in the hills of the Western Ghats in the southern states of Karnataka (72%), Kerala (20%) and Tamil Nadu (7%), with a small amount produced in the ‘non-traditional’ areas of Andhra Pradesh and Orissa (1%). Just over half the total production is of robusta, with the remainder arabica.