Clinical Neuroanatomy: Brain Circuitry and Its Disorders by Hans J. ten Donkelaar

By Hans J. ten Donkelaar

Connections outline the features of neurons: info flows alongside connections, in addition to development elements and viruses, or even neuronal demise might growth via connections. wisdom of ways a few of the elements of the mind are interconnected to shape practical structures is a prerequisite for the right kind figuring out of information from all fields within the neurosciences.

Clinical Neuroanatomy: mind Circuitry and Its issues bridges the distance among neuroanatomy and medical neurology. It emphasizes human and primate information within the context of issues of mind circuitry that are so universal in neurological perform. furthermore, a variety of medical instances exhibit how general mind circuitry can be interrupted and to what influence. Following an creation into the association and vascularisation of the human mind and the concepts to review mind circuitry, the most neurofunctional platforms are mentioned, together with the somatosensory, auditory, visible, motor, autonomic and limbic

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Sample text

During the foetal period, it “ascends” to lumbar levels owing to the disproportional growth of the spinal cord and the vertebral column. Until the 11th gestational week, the length of the spinal cord matches that of the vertebral column (Streeter 1919; ten Donkelaar and Hori 2006). Then, the ascensus medullae starts, the thin fibrous filum terminale is formed and the lower spinal nerves have progressively longer roots before reaching their intervertebral foramina. Collectively, the lumbar, sacral and coccygeal nerves form a prominent bundle in the vertebral canal, which is known as the cauda equina.

The ventral horn (the cornu ventrale) contains the somatomotor neurons innervating the muscles of the neck, the trunk and the limbs. The spinal somatomotor neurons form two columns, a medial column present from C1 to L4 for the dorsal musculature of the vertebral column and the muscles of the thorax and the abdomen, and a lateral column for the muscles of the extremities, present only in the cervical and lumbar enlargements. The lateral column can be further subdivided into a ventromedial group for the muscles of the shoulder, the hip and the proximal arm and leg muscles, and a dorsolateral column for the distal arm and leg muscles.

The posterior cranial fossa is formed by parts of the body of the sphenoid, the posterior surface of the petrous bone, the occipital bone and parts of the parietal bones. The petrous bone contains the vestibulocochlear organ (the inner ear) and the tympanic cavity (the middle ear). Apart from the large foramen magnum, through which the spinal cord, the spinal branches of the accessory nerves and the vertebral vessels pass, the posterior fossa contains the following openings: the internal acoustic pore to the internal acoustic meatus in the petrous bone for the vestibulocochlear and facial nerves and the labyrinthine vessels, the large jugular foramen for the internal jugular vein and the IXth, Xth and XIth cranial nerves, and the hypoglossal canal for the hypoglossal nerve.

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