By Prof. Jukka Lehto, Dr. Xiaolin Hou(auth.)
Chapter 1 Radionuclides and their Radiometric size (pages 1–24):
Chapter 2 unique good points of the Chemistry of Radionuclides and their Separation (pages 25–34):
Chapter three elements Affecting Chemical sorts of Radionuclides in Aqueous ideas (pages 35–56):
Chapter four Separation equipment (pages 57–80):
Chapter five Yield Determinations and Counting resource education (pages 81–90):
Chapter 6 Radiochemistry of the Alkali Metals (pages 91–98):
Chapter 7 Radiochemistry of the Alkaline Earth Metals (pages 99–122):
Chapter eight Radiochemistry of the 3d?Transition Metals (pages 123–137):
Chapter nine Radiochemistry of the 4d?Transition Metals (pages 139–161):
Chapter 10 Radiochemistry of the Lanthanides (pages 163–173):
Chapter eleven Radiochemistry of the Halogens (pages 175–191):
Chapter 12 Radiochemistry of the Noble Gases (pages 193–199):
Chapter thirteen Radiochemistry of Tritium and Radiocarbon (pages 201–216):
Chapter 14 Radiochemistry of Lead, Polonium, Tin, and Selenium (pages 217–237):
Chapter 15 Radiochemistry of the Actinides (pages 239–309):
Chapter sixteen Speciation research (pages 311–335):
Chapter 17 dimension of Radionuclides by means of Mass Spectrometry (pages 337–360):
Chapter 18 Sampling and pattern Pretreatment for the decision of Radionuclides (pages 361–389):
Chapter 19 Chemical adjustments caused by means of Radioactive Decay (pages 391–396):
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Additional resources for Chemistry and Analysis of Radionuclides: Laboratory Techniques and Methodology
Technetium, promethium, and all elements heavier than bismuth are radioactive, and no stable isotopes usable as carriers exist. In these cases a chemically analogous stable element can be used as a carrier. For example, Ba is generally used as a carrier for 226 Ra. Both are alkaline earth metals and barium is the next heaviest. Both form a divalent ion in solutions and behave chemically, more or less, in the same way. This is an example of the use of a nonisotopic carrier. In the same way trivalent lanthanides can be used as the carrier of trivalent actinides, for example Eu3 þ can be used as a carrier for 241 Am since they are chemically very much alike: americium also forms Am3 þ ion in solution.
The reason for these oxo forms is that the ionic potential of pentavalent metal ions is very high, and the positive charge of the metal attracts oxygen atoms of water molecules so strongly that all hydrogen atoms are liberated and covalent bonds are formed between the metal and the oxygen. This process takes place with nonmetals also. Elements of smaller size appear as oxoanions – among the elements having important radionuclides iodine as iodate (IO3À) and niobium as niobate (NbO3À). Ion sizes of the actinides, in turn, are so large that, in pentavalent form, they bind the oxygen atoms of only two water molecules and form yl ions: uranyl UO2 þ , neptunyl NpO2 þ , and plutonyl PuO2 þ .
Finally, the digital pulse goes into a multichannel analyzer which sorts the pulses into different channels based on their pulse height. In this way, an energy spectrum is obtained. The most challenging tasks in LSC are sample preparation and efﬁciency calibration. The former is discussed in Chapter 5. Efﬁciency calibration is needed to take into account the quenching that affects the counting efﬁciency. Quenching is a decrease in the efﬁciency of energy transfer from the beta particles, for example, to the scintillator, and a decrease in light photon intensity before they reach the PMTs.