By S. Langard, S. Langård
Organic and Environmental points of Chromium makes a speciality of the organic and environmental features of chromium and its compounds, with emphasis at the most crucial elements in their toxicology and body structure. subject matters coated variety from the creation and occupational publicity of chromium compounds to the presence of chromium in air, soil, and typical waters. The purposes of chromium in cellphone biology and medication also are discussed.
Comprised of eleven chapters, this quantity starts with an summary of the poisonous and carcinogenic results of chromium and chromium compounds, by way of a dialogue at the construction and occupational publicity of chromium compounds. The reader is then brought to the extra universal analytical tools utilized in the choice of chromium in environmental and organic samples. next chapters discover the dietary position of chromium; absorption, delivery, and excretion of chromium in people and animals; mutagenic and cytogenetic results of chromium compounds; and organ toxicity of chromium in animals. The carcinogenic results of chromium, together with its results at the dermis, also are considered.
This monograph should be of curiosity to scholars, practitioners, and researchers within the fields of biology, body structure, and chemistry, in addition to people with an aim curiosity within the ways that chromium and its compounds act in organic fabrics and within the human atmosphere.
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Additional resources for Biological and Environmental Aspects of Chromium
Because there exist within the plating industry a wide variety of technologies used for the deposition of chromium on different types of materials, and for different purposes, a review of occupational exposure should, for completeness, indicate the different electrolyte compositions of some of the more common processes, and where known, the levels of occupational exposure. 14 Composition of exposures for various jobs within the metal finishing industry (after Ahlin and Strand, 1978). 15 Composition of some common chrome plating baths.
Bloomfield and Pruden (1980) found the method Bartlett and James (1979) used to detect Cr(VI) to be unreliable in soil they studied but also showed that Cr(VI) was not totally reduced in several soils over a period of 35 days. In subsoil washed with dilute sodium hydroxide Cr(VI) sorption increased as pH decreased. The sorbed chromium was desorbed at pH 10—11 with tris (hydroxymethyl) methylamine apparently as Cr(VI). Cary et al. 5 but moved deeper in the limed soil. Less than 8% of the 51-Cr(VI) retained in the top 2 cm was isotopically extractable with non-radioactive Cr(VI) and no exchange was noted below 6 cm.
Additional chromium is bound through other mechanisms, and can act as a filler material produced under various specific treatments, especially those which reduce the tannage rate (masking) to ensure more uniform penetration. Wet freshly tanned skins can contain from 1—2% Cr by weight. Dry leather powder (used for analytical check of the tanning) can contain from 2—6% Cr, depending on the degree of masking during tanning, and the resulting filler chromium. The major occupational exposure to chromium in the tanning industry would appear to be through contact with tanning liquor [as Cr(III)], and in the production of such liquors [both as Cr(VI) and Cr (III)]: atmospheric Cr concentrations in modern tanning 3 facilities is probably low, below 30 Mg/m (NIOSH, 1981).