Instant Revision: AS Chemistry by Anthony Ellison

By Anthony Ellison

Transparent rationalization of what you wish for AS - ready-made, rapid revision notes brief self-check questions for all AS parts solutions to each query Grade-boosting tutorials from the examiner transparent, glossy designs.

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Example The reaction between iodide ions and iron (III) ions Iodide ions are oxidised to iodine molecules: 2I–(aq) I2(aq) + 2e– ... (i) Iron (III) ions are reduced to iron (II) ions: Fe3+(aq) + e– Fe2+(aq) ... (ii) Equation (ii) is multiplied by 2 and then added to equation (i): 2I–(aq) + 2Fe3+(aq) + 2e– I2(aq) + 2Fe2+(aq) + 2e– – so allowing the e to be cancelled: 2I–(aq) + 2Fe3+(aq) I2(aq) + 2Fe2+(aq) You may come across more complicated half-equations, but the basic principles remain the same.

Very weak attractive forces Induced-dipole/induced-dipole forces increase in strength as the number of electrons in the molecule increases. This phenomenon is illustrated by the increase in boiling temperatures of the halogens down group 7. Permanent-dipole/permanent-dipole forces Permanent-dipole/permanent-dipole forces are weak attractive forces between permanently polar molecules. δ+ atoms in one molecule attract δ– atoms in another molecule. They act in addition to the induced-dipole/induced-dipole forces.

Hydride HF HCl HBr HI Molar mass/g mol–1 Boiling temp. 5 –85 81 –67 128 –35 (a) Explain why the boiling temperature of HF is higher than that of HCl. (2) (b) Explain the increase in boiling temperatures from HCl to HI. (2) 8 Use the VSEPR theory to work out the shapes of the following molecules or ions. (a) SF6 (2) (b) CO32– (2) (c) PH3 (2) (d) PF4+ (2) The answers are on page 111. 37 R EDOX R EACTIONS (1) Oxidation and reduction Oxidation has been defined as: ● gain of oxygen 2CuO(s) Example 2Cu(s) + O2(g) copper has been oxidised ● loss of hydrogen MnCl2(aq) + 2H2O(l) + Cl2(g) Example MnO2(s) + 4HCl(l) hydrochloric acid has been oxidised Reduction has been defined as: ● loss of oxygen 2Fe(l) + 3CO2(g) Example Fe2O3(s) + 3CO(g) iron (III) oxide has been reduced ● gain of hydrogen Example C2H4(g) + H2(g) ethene has been reduced C2H6(g) Because many reactions involving oxidation and reduction do not involve loss or gain of hydrogen and/or oxygen, it is more useful to define oxidation and reduction in terms of electrons.

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