By Gould R.F. (ed.)
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Extra info for Amino Acids and Serum Proteins
So, for alkali metal halide melts the use of the strongest halogenating agents does not result in essential reduction of the oxide ion concentration, since the action of such reagents favours the transformation of oxide ion into weaker bases such as CO22 3 , and the latter admixture is hardly destroyed in the melt. Historically, earlier studies of oxoacidity in molten salts were performed without detailed analysis of the melts’ composition, and the pO of “pure” oxygen-less melts was often used as a constant of the given solvent [62– 65].
In order to give the most general formulation of the solvosystem concept we should divide the solvent in relation to the initially chosen definition of acids and bases (definition of acidic and basic particles). Thus, the generalized definition for solvent system developed in our works [37, 44, 45] can be formulated as follows: – the intrinsic acid– base dissociation (auto-dissociation) of a solvent is any (excluding redox) reaction of heterolytic dissociation of its constituent parts (molecules or ions), which results in the formation of electron-deficient particle –acid and electron-donor particle– base; – a solvent is referred to the solvents of the first kind in the case of the formation of the corresponding acid (base) as a result of its intrinsic dissociation processes; in the other case it is referred to solvents of the second kind.
The second way of appearance of oxide ion admixtures in molten media is characteristic of the melts based on alkali metal halides: the process of high-temperature hydrolysis of the said halide melts results in the formation of hydroxide ions and, after their dissociation, of oxide ions: MeX þ H2 O ! MeOHðuMeþ þ OH2 Þ þ HX " : ð1:2:1Þ The presence of the oxide-containing admixtures in oxygen-less melts inevitably leads to their dissociation with the formation of oxide ions. For the admixtures mentioned, these processes are described in ionic form by the following equations: 22 SO22 4 O SO3 " þ O ; ð1:2:2Þ Features of high-temperature ionic solvents as media 35 22 CO22 3 O CO2 " þ O ; ð1:2:3Þ 2OH2 O H2 O " þ O22 : ð1:2:4Þ Since the concentrations of all these admixtures depend on the purity of the salts used for preparation of the melts, they are not constant.