By Yumin Ao
This e-book is a research of the thematic, narrative, and musical constitution of Yuanqu xuan [A number of Yuan performs] variation of the Yuan zaju (variety play) Dou E yuan [Injustice to Dou E] initially composed through the very hot playwright Guan Hanqing (fl. 1260). even if different authors have studied those 3 points of Dou E yuan individually, this is often the 1st accomplished remedy of the subject as a scholarly monograph in English. Yumin Ao’s research is predicated at the variation of the play within the Yuanqu xuan [A number of Yuan performs] compiled via the Ming writer Zang Maoxun (ca. 1550-1620). Ao proposes that Dou E yuan, as a dramatic narrative which develops via its enactment at the level instead of by means of verbal presentation as a narrative, screens its integrative constitution of narration via its thematic improvement and inside its musical conventions.
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Additional info for A Study on the Thematic, Narrative, and Musical Structure of Guan Hanqing's Yuan Zaju, Injustice to Dou E (Currents in Comparative Romance Languages and Literatures)
Zhong Sicheng’s lists in the LGB roughly divide into two periods: those of the early Yuan (1220–1300) and those of the mid Yuan (1260–1340) in his own time. 9 Under the entry of “Guan Hanqing” in the LGB, there is a brief biography and a short panegyric, followed by a list of the dramas attributed to him. The biographical information about Guan Hanqing’s name, milieu, official position and domicile remains controversial as there is very little reliable evidence. ’ 關漢卿，大都人，太醫院尹。號已齋叟。10 According to the bibliographical notes for the playwrights in the LGB, Guan Hanqing, like all the other fifty-four dramatic composers listed in the first section, came from Northern China (or the present-day provinces Hebei 河北, Shanxi 山 西, Shandong 山東 and Henan 河南).
For instance, the late Ming novelist and dramatist Ling Mengchu 淩蒙初 (1580–1644) gave prominence to the natural quality of the Yuan dramatic qu. In his Tanqu zazha 譚曲雜劄 [Miscellaneous Short Notes on Discussing Drama], Ling defended his idea that: In the barbarian Yuan era, qu started to flourish, a literary genre which mainly upholds a fluid, but not a flowery, quality. This intrinsic merit can be paraphrased as “natural quality” as well. 曲始于胡元，大略貴當行不貴藻麗。其當行者曰“本色”。30 The expression bense 本色 (“natural quality” or plain style) was employed by Ling Mengchu to define Guan Hanqing’s language style in the Xixiangji fanli 西廂記 凡例 [Notes on the Romance of the West Chamber].
1 Zaju Plays Attributed to Guan Hanqing and Their Inclusion in Selections of Traditional Chinese Dramas 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Complete or Fragmentary Inclusion in Drama Selections Title Authorship Guan Zhang shuangfu xishu meng 關張雙赴西蜀夢 [Guan and Zhang Travel together to Western Shu in a Dream] Guiyuan jiaren baiyue ting 闺怨佳人拜月亭 [The Pavilion of Moon-Worship] Qian Dayin zhichong Xie Tianxiang 錢大尹智寵 謝天香 [Qian Dayin by a Ruse bestowes Favour] Du Ruiniang zhi shang jinxian chi 杜蕊娘智賞金 線池 [Du Ruiniang Wisely Appreciates Gold Thread Pond] Wangjiang ting zhongqiu qiehui 望江亭中秋切鱠 [Riverside Pavilion at Mid-Autumn: A Female Slicing Fish] Shanshenmiao Peidu huandai 山神廟裴度還帶 [Pei Du Returns Cincture at the Mountain God Temple] Zhao Pan’er fengyue jiu fengchen 趙盼兒風月救風塵 [In Mist and Moonlight Zhao Pan’er Rescues Her from the Windblown Dust] Deng Furen kutong ku cunxiao 鄧夫人苦痛哭存孝 [Deeply Grieved, Lady Deng Laments Cunxiao] Guan Hanqing Complete texts for YKSSZ the arias; minimal dialogue and stage directions Guan Hanqing Complete texts for YKSSZ the arias; minimal dialogue and stage directions GMJ, YQX Guan Hanqing Complete with dialogue and arias GMJ, GZJ, Guan Hanqing Complete with dialogue and arias YQX, GJHX MWG, GZJ, Guan Hanqing Complete with dialogue and arias YQX Disputed MWG Complete with dialogue and arias GMJ, YQX Guan Hanqing Complete with dialogue and arias MWG Guan Hanqing Complete with dialogue and arias 22 | a study on the thematic , narr ative , and m u s i c a l st r u c t ur e Title 9 Guan Dawang dandao hui 關大王單刀會 [The Single-Sword Meeting of Great Prince Guan] 10 Wen Taizhen yujing tai 温太真玉镜台 [Wen Taizhen and The Jade Mirror-Stand] 11 Qian Dayin zhikan feiyi meng 錢大尹智勘绯衣梦 [Qian Dayin Verifies the Dream of Red Clothing] 12 Zha nizi tiao fengyue 詐妮子調風月 [A Clever Wench Sports in the Wind and Moon] 13 Gantian dongdi Dou E yuan 感天动地窦娥冤 [Moving Heaven and Stirring Earth Injustice to Dou E] 14 Zhuangyuan tang Chenmu jiaozi 狀元堂陳母教子 [Mother Chen Instructs Her Sons] 15 Bao Daizhi sankan hudie meng 包待制三勘蝴蝶夢 [Rescriptor-in-Waiting Bao Thrice Investigates the Butterfly Dream] Liu Furen qingshang wuhou 16 zhai 劉夫人慶賞五侯齋 [Madam Liu Feasts and Rewards Five Marquis] 17 Bao Daizhi zhizhan Lu Zhailang 包待制智斬魯 齋郎 [Rescriptor-inWaiting Bao Cleverly Executes Court Gentleman Lu] Authorship Complete or Fragmentary Inclusion in Drama Selections Guan Hanqing Complete with dialogue and arias YKSSZ, MWG Guan Hanqing Complete with dialogue and arias GMJ, GZJ, YQX, GJHX Guan Hanqing Complete with dialogue and arias GMJ, GZJ, MWG YKSSZ Guan Hanqing Complete texts for the arias and minimal dialogue and stage directions GMJ, YQX, Guan Hanqing Complete with GJHX dialogue and arias Disputed Complete with dialogue and arias MWG Guan Hanqing Complete with dialogue and arias GMJ, YQX Disputed Complete with dialogue and arias MWG Disputed Complete with dialogue and arias GMJ, YQX guan hanqing , his zaju composition and the editions of dou e yuan | 23 Title 18 Weichi Gong Danbian Duoshuo尉遲恭單鞭奪槊 [Yuchi Gong Thrice Seizes the Lance] 19 Tang Minghuang ku xiangnang 唐明皇哭香囊 [The Tang Emperor Xuanzong Cries for the Sachet] 20 Fengliu Kongmu chunshan ji 風流孔目春衫記 [A Tale of the Romantic Court-clerk Wearing Spring Clothes] 21 Meng Laing daogu 孟良盜骨 [Meng Liang Steals Bones] Authorship Disputed Complete or Fragmentary Inclusion in Drama Selections Complete with dialogue and arias MWG, GMJ, YQX Guan Hanqing Exists only as Fragments BCGZP Guan Hanqing Exists only as Fragments BCGZP Guan Hanqing Exists only as Fragments BCGZP The attributions of authorship for the plays served as the foundation for those in later collections of Yuan zaju, such as the YQX by Zang Maoxun.