A Companion to the Philosophy of History and Historiography by Aviezer Tucker

By Aviezer Tucker

The fifty entries during this Companion conceal the most concerns within the philosophies of historiography and historical past, together with normal historical past and the practices of historians.
• Written through a global and multi-disciplinary staff of experts
• A state-of-the-art up-to-date photograph of present examine within the field
• a part of the popular Blackwell Companions sequence

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4–6 In the same way the Corinthian helmet, shaped from a single sheet of bronze which covered the whole head apart from a T-shaped opening for the eyes and mouth, would only have been effective in frontal hand-to-hand fighting where the severely restricted vision and hearing were of far less importance than protection for the whole head and neck. Consequently, the hoplite phalanx made its first appearance soon after 700, was widely employed in the second quarter of the seventh century (675–650) and therefore was available to play a part in the political upheavals of the seventh century.

There is also the increasing rapprochement between Athens and Sparta through their mutual fear of Thebes. In addition, this book narrates the battle of Leuctra in 371, when the Thebans destroyed the myth of Spartan military invincibility for ever, and the first Theban-led invasion of the Peloponnese and Laconia (370/69). Book 7 covers the events and political developments in the Peloponnese throughout the 360s, beginning with the alliance between Athens and Sparta (369), and the second invasion of the Peloponnese by the Thebans at the request of the Arcadians, Argives and Elis (369), and ending with the battle of Mantinea (362), in which all of the major Greek states and their allies were ranged on either side.

To sum up, it is probably right to see the desire for cultivable land as the primary cause of colonization, since the majority of Greeks depended for their livelihood on agriculture, and the serious social and economic problems of over-population and landhunger did coincide with the colonizing movement in the second half of the eighth century. Trade was certainly the primary consideration in the foundation of a few colonies and an increasingly important factor in numerous others, but it is difficult to argue that it was the main cause as this view requires unequivocal evidence that the economy of the colonies was based on trade from the beginning.

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